ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY

3 1

833 01736 0931

GENEALOGY

977,7

P176C

1939

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2016 with funding from findmypast.com

https://archive.org/details/iowajournalofhis37stat_0

Binding No.

2203

'j

Color

Light Brown

Black

Dark Brown

Red

Dark Green

Maroon

Dark Blue

Olive

!

Style

Y2 Morocco

Library

V2 Cowhide

Cloth

J/2 Pigskin

Duck

Sample

VolOme

Back

Special Directions

THE IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS

COPYRIGHT 1939 BY

THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OP IOWA

THE

IOWA JOURNAL

OP

HISTORY AND POLITICS

BENJAMIN F. SHAMBAUGH

EDITOR

VOLUME XXXVII 1939

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OE IOWA IOWA CITY IOWA 1939

CONTENTS

Number 1 January 1939

The Territorial Centennial of Iowa

William J. Petersen 3

Journal of Cyrus Sanders

52

Some Publications

89

lowana

94

Historical Activities

104

Notes and Comment

110

Contributors

112

Number 2 April 1939

A Stranger in a Strange Land : Romance in Pella History

Some Publications

lowana

Historical Activities Notes and Comment

Leonora Scholte 115

204

205 219 222

Contributors

224

Vlll

CONTENTS

Number 3 July 1939

Mural Painting in Iowa Gladys E. Hamlin

Some Publications lowana

Historical Activities Notes and Comment Contributors

Number 4 October 1939

An low^a Farmers’ Protective Association:

A Barbed Wire Patent Protest

Movement Earl W. Hayter

The Iowa City Centennial Jacob A. Swisher

The Methodist Episcopal Church of

Iowa City Ruth A. Gallaher

Some Publications

lowana

Historical Activities Notes and Comment Contributors Index

227

308

314

322

327

328

331

363

379

423

426

433

438

440

443

Published Quarterjy 1^

IpWA

m

I^MBS^TTmTuJSi^HjTowirirBeooSSS^ of Jnly 16, 1894

BENJAMIN F. SHAMBAUGH EDITOR

RUTH A. GALUAHER ASSOCIATE EDITOR

Vol XXXVII

JANUARY 1939

No 1

CONTENTS

The Territorial Centennial of loxa

Journal of Cyrus Sanders Some Publications , v j; ^ lowana . / \ : ,1 > Historical Activities Notes and Comment . . Contributors / . ,

’4' P-W? '

SC,

C‘- ' ' , *

■•• "I. ;>•!>■ •:■:■■, v’-'. ' '

Copyright I$S9 hp The State BisioHcaX Society-, of Iowa

3

52

89

94

104

110

112

THE IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS

Published Quarxebly:

SuBSOEirtiOK PBioi: BiKdLi Numbee.- IJO Cents

>, wi^wA axr AMrtm^eM Communieaiione to The State HistOiticAL Socxbty Iowa

m

THE IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS

JANUARY NINETEEN HUNDRED THIRTY-NINE VOLUME THIETY-SEVEN NUMBEE ONE

XXXVII

THE TERRITORIAL CENTENNIAL OF IOWA

On June 12, 1838, President Martin Van Buren signed the bill whereby the Territory of Iowa was born on July 4, 1838. This sprawling wilderness contained nearly 200,000 square miles an area larger than that of any State in the Union today except Texas. It was bounded on the east by the Mississippi River and on the west by the muddy Mis- souri. The pine-clad forests of Canada hemmed its north- ern outskirts while the northern boundary of the State of Missouri formed its southern limits. Only about 10,850 square miles of the Territory were open for settlement in 1838. This tract, in the southeast corner of the Territory, had been divided into twenty-one counties which boasted a population of 22,819 in 1838. The remainder of the country was still the Indians’ hunting ground.^

A century later, in 1938, the State of Iowa embraced 56,- 147 square miles and contained a population of two and one-half million people in its 99 counties. The changes that one hundred years had brought were amazing. The city of Des Moines alone contained seven times as many people in 1938 as were counted in the whole Territory in 1838. Then a 160-acre farm could be staked out and pur- chased for $1.25 an acre : a century later the average value of land in Iowa was around $88 an acre. In 1838 a log cabin could be raised in the Black Hawk Purchase at vir- tually no cost save the labor of the pioneer and his neigh- bors. In 1930 the average farm dwelling in Davis County cost $1676 while that in Scott County cost $3266. In 1840

1 Petersen The Birthday of the Territory in The Palimpsest, Vol. XIX, pp. 241-250; Petersen The Geography of Iowa Territory in The Palimpsest, Vol. XIX, pp. 264-274.

3

4 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS

the value of poultry of all kinds was $16,529. In 1936 Iowa poultry was worth $26,841,522 while eggs added $40,205,502 more to the total value of farm products which amounted to $537,105,540. In 1838 people thought in terms of the covered wagon, the stagecoach, and the steamboat. In 1938 they were thinking in terms of radio, television, talking pictures, streamlined automobiles, railroads, and airplanes. Four breathless generations had seen more changes in a century than mankind had witnessed in two thousand years of history. lowans were beginning to think that it was time to take inventory of the past achievements of the State: the centennial anniversary of the establishment of the Territory of Iowa seemed to provide just the right opportunity.^

In the observance of any public anniversary there are at least two approaches. One is that of the historian; the other that of the promoter. The Territorial Centennial of Iowa had been in the mind of the State Historical Society of Iowa as early as 1930 when the entire twelve issues of The Palimpsest were devoted to the general theme ‘‘Iowa and the Nation’’. In January of that same year the Society published William J. Petersen’s Some Beginnings in Iowa, an article in The Iowa Journal of History and Politics which stressed the period up to 1838. The First Hundred Years, an article by Ruth A. Gallaher, appeared in The Journal for October, 1933.

Since 1932 each Iowa History Week celebration has stressed some centennial: in 1932 the central theme was devoted to the Black Hawk Purchase; in 1933 to the per- manent settlement of Iowa; in 1934 to the attachment of Iowa to the Territory of Michigan ; in 1935 to the Dragoon expedition up the Des Moines Valley; and in 1936 to the establishment of the Territory of Wisconsin. The year

2 Petersen’s In the Fields in The Palimpsest, Vol. XIX, pp. 275-285.

THE TERRITORIAL CENTENNIAL OF IOWA

5

1937 was not distinguished for any one outstanding event so Iowa History Week and The Palimpsest simply featured such incidents as the founding of the first bank in Iowa, the first land surveys, and the second Black Hawk Purchase. During this same period the Society published such useful volumes as Black Hawk’s Autobiography ^ Shambaugh’s History of the Iowa Constitutions y and Albert M. Lea’s Notes on Wisconsin Territory. Thus, a wealth of material had already been made accessible to lowans when the Cen- tennial of the Territory of Iowa arrived in 1938.

THE IOWA CENTENNIAL COMMITTEE

The genesis of the idea of popular celebrations of the Territorial Centennial may be traced to The Believers in Iowa”, an organization formed in 1934 to seU Iowa on the idea that business was better than the psychology of the people. Although the observance of the Centennial of the Territory of Iowa probably had been in the minds of many lowans, the honor of initiating a Statewide observance has been credited to W. Earl Hall, editor of the Mason City Globe-Gazette. Hall invited about sixty prominent lowans to meet at the Hotel Port Des Moines on February 13, 1937, for the consideration of a Centennial observance. After an exchange of views by those present it was decided to attempt to secure legislative action to sponsor such a celebration.®

Following this suggestion, Senator Earl Dean of Cerro Gordo County introduced Senate Concurrent Resolution No. 13 authorizing the Governor ‘^to appoint a statewide, non-salaried committee of at least twenty-five persons to be known as the Iowa Centennial Committee, which shall

3 Report of the Managing Director and Executive Secretary of the Iowa Centennial Committee, p. 3. The abstract of minutes of the Iowa Centennial Committee, together with other data, has been deposited in the archives of the Historical, Memorial and Art Department at Des Moines.

6 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS

be charged with planning and promoting of statewide, regional and local observances in 1938 of the one hundredth anniversary of the Iowa territory’’. The Iowa legislator believed, first of all, that a Centennial observance would secure ‘‘nationwide publicity” for Iowa. It was also felt that it would “impress our citizens and prospective citi- zens” with the growdh and progress of the Hawkeye State, thereby making them more “Iowa conscious” and thus selling Iowa to lowans ’. Finally, centennial celebrations would cause lowans “to travel over the state to see what Iowa has to offer”, giving cities and towns the opportunity to “build celebrations to attract visitors and to promote business”.

The authors of the resolution believed such a program could be achieved in a number of ways: by promoting historical celebrations throughout Iowa; by marking his- toric sites ; by publishing books and maps on Iowa history ; by developing a special course of study on Iowa history for the schools; by publishing centennial newspaper editions; by urging various nationalities to portray their roles in the development of Iowa; by adopting the slogan “See Iowa this year”; by listing Iowa’s contributions to science, invention, literature, music, art, industry, exploration, education, and statesmanship ; by requesting the State Fair and county and regional fairs to build their 1938 programs around the centennial theme; by staging pageants and plays, historical essay contests, family reunions, and reli- gious observances featuring Iowa history.

Having outlined a program that might have caused the Century of Progress committee in Chicago some anxious moments, the General Assembly resolved that “state and local organizations and institutions (such as local historical societies, old settlers associations. Daughters of the Ameri- can Revolution, American Legion, women’s clubs. Parent-

THE TERRITORIAL CENTENNIAL OF IOWA

7

Teacher Associations, chambers of commerce, county fair associations, schools and colleges, lodges and service clubs and others) be requested to cooperate with the Iowa Cen- tennial Committee”. The State Historical Society of Iowa and other agencies were also ‘^requested to cooperate with the Iowa Centennial Committee and with all state and local organizations and institutions contemplating the celebra- tion of centennial anniversaries.” This resolution was adopted by the Senate on March 9, 1937, and by the House on April 20th, but no appropriation was included.^

On May 29, 1937, Governor Nelson G. Kraschel appointed J. R. Bahne, publisher of The Eldora Herald-Ledger, as chairman of the Iowa Centennial Committee. At the same time he issued his first commissions to members of the committee, a number which gradually grew to 122. In- cluded in the roster were mayors of cities of more than 17,000 population, executives of Statewide organizations of a civic nature, newspaper publishers and editors, educators, religious leaders, and prominent representatives of agricul- ture, industry, business, and the professions. The geogra- phic distribution of this Iowa Centennial Committee was widespread, its members being chosen from fifty-five coun- ties and all nine congressional districts. Such a distribution it was hoped would insure a uniform interest and activity throughout the State. As finally constituted the Centen- nial Committee had the following personnel^ :

FIEST CONGEESSIONAL DI8TEICT Name Town County

Mrs. Katharine Baker Wapello Louisa

^Journal of the Senate, 1937, pp. 442-443. The resolution was printed in The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. XXXV, pp. 339-341. See also the Beport of the Managing Director and Executive Secretary of the Iowa Centennial Committee, Appendix A.

^Beport of the Managing Director and Executive Secretary of the Iowa Centennial Committee, Appendix B; Chariton Leader, March 15, 1938.

8 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS

Name

Town

County

A. L. Biklen

Burlington

Des Moines

Dale E. Carrell

Keokuk

Lee

Max A. Conrad

Burlington

Des Moines

Joe R. Frailey

Fort Madison

Lee

Thomas Green

Burlington

Des Moines

Rev. H. DeWitt Henry

Mount Pleasant

Henry

R. B. Louden

Fairfield

Jefferson

S. W. Mitchell

Port Madison

Lee

Louis Pelzer

Iowa City

Johnson

R. H. Plock (Chairman)

Burlington

Des Moines

C. R. Rabedeaux

Muscatine

Muscatine

Benj. F. Shambaugh

Iowa City

J ohnson

B. H. Shearer

Columbus Junction

Louisa

SECOND CONGEESSIONAL DISTRICT

C. R. Byland

Bellevue

Jackson

C. J. Cash, Jr.

Anamosa

Jones

John K. Chalmers

Dubuque

Dubuque

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Thos. Corny

Dubuque

Dubuque

W. C. Eastland

Clinton

Clinton

Mrs. Clyde L. Ellsworth

Dubuque

Dubuque

Prank Hahn

Cedar Rapids

Linn

Howard Hall

Cedar Rapids

Linn

Hugh Harrison

Davenport

Scott

R. N. Howes

Clinton

Clinton

L. H. Lowry

Anamosa

Jones

Royal Holbrook

Cedar Rapids

Linn

B. J. Palmer

Davenport

Scott

J ohn Ryder

Dubuque

Dubuque

L. J. Schuster (Chairman)

Clinton

Clinton

Laurence C. Smith

Dyersville

Dubuque

Merle F. Wells

Davenport

Scott

THIRD CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT

J. R. Bahne (General Chairman)

Bldora Hardin

Ward Barnes Eagle Grove Wright

G. W. Darling Marshalltown Marshall

THE TERRITORIAL CENTENNIAL OF IOWA

9

Name

Town

County

Eugene T. Flaherty

Cedar Falls

Black Hawk

A. B. Kline (Chairman)

Vinton

Benton

A. B. Mahnke

Greene

Butler

Dwight Purcell

Hampton

Franklin

C, M. Richards

Toledo

Tama

Ralph B. Slippy

Waterloo

Black Hawk

J. Vanderwicken

Grundy Center

Grundy

FOURTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT

Leo A. Davey

Mason City

Cerro Gordo

Rev. W. A. Dostal

Fort Atkinson

Winneshiek

E. J. Feuling

New Hampton

Chickasaw

M. X. Geske

McGregor

Clayton

W. Earl Hall (Chairman)

Mason City

Cerro Gordo

Fred W. Hermann

Manchester

Delaware

W. J. Klingbeil

Postville

Allamakee

George F. Mead

Cresco

Howard

Lester Milligan

Mason City

Cerro Gordo

E. K. Pitman

Northwood

Worth

Thomas B. Powell

West Union

Fayette

Mrs. Lillian Schulte

Elkader

Clayton

FIFTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT

T. Henry Foster

Ottumwa

Wapello

C. A. Hill

Ottumwa

Wapello

Karl. M. LeCompte

Corydon

Wayne

Fred Maytag II (Chairman)

Newton

Jasper

J. R. Rhodes

Newton

Jasper

Charles P. Starrett

Newton

J asper

John K. Valentine

Centerville

Appanoose

E. J. Van Nostrand

Newton

J asper

SIXTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT

Archie A. Alexander

Des Moines

Polk

Joe H. Allen

Des Moines

Polk

Phil S. Billings

Des Moines

Polk

Grant L. Caswell

Ames

Story

Albert Couch

Des Moines

Polk

10 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS

Name

Town

County

D. W. Crum

Des Moines

Polk

Mrs. Eugene Cutler

Des Moines

Polk

J ohn Denison

Des Moines

Polk

Laurence R. Fairall

Des Moines

Polk

Victor Felter

Indianola

Warren

Alex Fitzhugh

Des Moines

Polk

Harvey Ingham

Des Moines

Polk

George Jones

Knoxville

Marion

E. A. Kimball (Chairman)

Des Moines

Polk

0. E. Klingaman

Des Moines

Polk

Rabbi Eugene Mannheimer

Des Moines

Polk

Mrs. W. E. Maulsby

Des Moines

Polk

Mrs. Max Mayer

Des Moines

Polk

Mrs. M. L. Northup

Des Moines

Polk

Mrs. Charles F. Pye

Des Moines

Polk

W. S. Rupe

Ames

Story

J. S. Russell

Des Moines

Polk

C. W. Schmidt

Des Moines

Polk

SEVENTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT

WiUard D. Archie

Shenandoah

Page

William Guilfoyle

Council Bluffs

Pottawattamie

Earl E. May (Chairman)

Shenandoah

Page

S. W. McCall

Council Bluffs

Pottawattamie

Albert A. Namen

Council Bluffs

Pottawattamie

EIGHTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT

L. D. Brennan (Chairman)

Emmetsburg

Palo Alto

Walter Casteel

Fort Dodge

Webster

James I. Dolliver

Fort Dodge

Webster

G. A. Garlock

Fort Dodge

Webster

Edgar Hovey

Badger

Webster

Granger Mitchell

Fort Dodge

Webster

Richard F. Mitchell

Fort Dodge

Webster

W. A. Murray

Bancroft

Kossuth

W. R. Prewitt

Forest City

Winnebago

Oliver S. Reiley

Algona

Kossuth

George Tucker

Webster City

Hamilton

R. B. Waller

Algona

Kossuth

THE TERRITORIAL CENTENNIAL OP IOWA H

NINTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT

Name

Town

County

C. Jay Bains

Alta

Buena Vista

C. M. Brown

Whiting

Monona

John Carey

Sioux City

Woodbury

W. D. Hayes

Sioux City

Woodbury

Mrs. Ralph Henderson

Sioux City

Woodbury

Max R. Hueschen

Holstein

Ida

W. C. Jarnagin

Storm Lake

Buena Vista

A. J. Johnson

Moorhead

Monona

Francis Johnson

Spirit Lake

Dickinson

Paul Martin

Spencer

Clay

George Silknitter

Sioux City

Woodbury

R. F. Starzl

LeMars

Plymouth

W. R. Towns

Sioux City

Woodbury

A. S. Wendel (Chairman)

Bronson

Woodbury

Hans Wilken

Rock Rapids

Lyon

The passage of the joint resolution and the appointment of the Iowa Centennial Committee was hailed with enthu- siasm throughout Iowa. Newspapers acclaimed the plan in editorials; churches, schools, patriotic and civic organiza- tions, all welcomed the opportunity of making lowans more conscious of their State at the same time that the advan- tages of the Commonwealth might be made better known to outsiders. The great difficulty was the lack of any appro- priation.

Adequate financing of any celebration is well nigh essen- tial to its success. Always a conservative State, Iowa legis- lators have nevertheless usually appropriated fairly gen- erous sums to projects from which the State might receive favorable publicity. Between 1876 and 1936 Iowa had appropriated the following sums for fairs and expositions

Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia, 1876 $20,000

Educational Exposition at Madison, Wisconsin, 1884 1,000

6 The statistics on Iowa appropriations was compiled by Dr. J. A. Swisher, Research Associate of The State Historical Society of Iowa.

12 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS

World’s Exposition at New Orleans, 1884-1885 $16,137

Columbian Exposition at Chicago, 1893 175,000

Trans-Mississippi Exposition at Omaha in 1898 35,000

Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. Louis in 1903 145,000 Semi-Centennial of the Constitution of Iowa at Iowa City in 1907 750

Fiftieth Anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg,

1913 11,275

Panama Exposition at San Francisco, 1915 75,000

Celebration of the Siege of Vicksburg, 1917 40,000

Sesquicentennial at Philadelphia, 1926 95,117

Century of Progress at Chicago, 1933 25,000

Total $639,279

Chairman Bahne and the Iowa Centennial Committee, left without any appropriation, set to work with a will, casting about for funds with which to implement the wishes of the legislature. Between July and December, 1937, some ten informal conferences were held in Des Moines. The first of these met on July 17, 1937, in the Lieutenant Gover- nor’s office in the State House. Chairman Bahne called the meeting to order. The need for some means of financing the Centennial was paramount in the minds of the Commit- tee. The appointment of an Executive Secretary and the establishment of a central office were also important. Among other things the Committee was urged to request an appro- priation of $10,000 from the Committee on Retrenchment and Reform. It was also suggested that the Federal gov- ernment strike offi a commemorative half dollar, and a bill to that effect was introduced in Congress. The plan was to have the government issue 100,000 of these coins to be turned over to the Centennial Committee at par, permitting the Committee to dispose of them at a premium, if it cared to do so. This plan failed to materialize.

THE TERRITOBIAL CENTENNIAL OF IOWA 13

A month later, on August 20th, John Huston of Ot- tumwa presented an elaborate plan for advertising the Iowa Centennial in eastern newspapers. During the next four months the Committee continued to explore various avenues for raising funds. This work was done by a small group, usually consisting of some or all of the following: Chairman J. R. Bahne; John D. Adams, Des Moines; John Huston, Ottumwa; Hugh Harrison, Davenport; Max Hue- schen, Holstein; W. Earl Hall and Lester Milligan, Mason City; J, S. Nollen, Grinnell; 0. R. Sweeney, Ames, and Louis Pelzer, Iowa City."^

After vainly casting about for four months Governor Kra- schel and Chairman Bahne appeared before the December, 1937, meeting of the Iowa State Pair Board and secured a promise to feature the Centennial at the 1938 State Pair and also an allotment of $5,000 for the operating expenses of an Executive Office for the Iowa Centennial Committee.®

A month later on J anuary 16, 1938 the full commit- tee met in Des Moines and authorized the chairman to appoint five members to serve on an Executive Commit- tee on which he was to serve ex officio. This Executive Committee of six members was to appoint a board of nine members, one representing each congressional district. The Executive Committee was also empowered to employ a Managing Director and an Executive Secretary. John D. Adams and A. R. Corey of Des Moines, John Huston of Ottumwa, John S. Nollen of Grinnell, and 0. R. Sweeney of Ames, were chosen by Chairman Bahne to serve on the Ex- ecutive Committee.^

7 Report of the Managing Director and Executive Secretary of the Iowa Centennial Committee, pp. 3, 4.

8 Report of the Managing Director and Executive Secretary of the Iowa Centennial Committee, p. 4.

9 Report of the Managing Director and Executive Secretary of the Iowa Centennial Committee, pp. 3, 4, and Appendix B.

14 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS

Two weeks later, on January 29th, the Executive Com- mittee met in the Lieutenant Governor’s office and appoint- ed J. C. Hammond, publisher of the Decorah Journal, as Managing Director of the Iowa Territorial Centennial; S. P. Stump, secretary of the Fort Dodge Chamber of Com- merce, as Executive Secretary; and Mrs. Della Harper of Des Moines as office secretary. The office was opened in the State Fair Board office at the Capitol building. When Mr. Stump declined his appointment, the Executive Committee appointed Robert Burlingame of Eldora, then serving as Secretary to Governor Nelson G. Kraschel, as Executive Secretary. Mr. Burlingame joined the staff on February 15th, at which time the Iowa Centennial Committee’s offices were moved into permanent quarters in the rooms of the Department of Agriculture.

The Executive Committee opened its office on February 15th and closed the doors on September 30th. Its activities may be divided into four parts; (1) cooperation with the State Fair Board in planning historical features for the 1938 fair; (2) promotion of and assistance to local centen- nial celebrations throughout Iowa; (3) management of a publicity program; and (4) gathering and disseminating information on Iowa history, travel, and industry for speakers and writers on centennial subjects. No hard and fast line marked the duties of the Executive Committee staff. The Managing Director, J. C. Hammond, handled the Centennial publicity and encouraged the publication of historical editions by Iowa newspapers. Robert Burlin- game, the Executive Secretary, supervised local celebra- tions and the Speakers’ Bureau. Mrs. Harper had charge of stenographic and clerical work, and managed the office.

Learning that the State of Wisconsin had celebrated the centennial of the establishment of the Territory of Wiscon- sin in 1936, Managing Director Hammond and Executive

THE TERRITORIAL CENTENNIAL OF IOWA 15

Secretary Burlingame determined to visit the directors of that centennial with a view to securing ideas for the Iowa Centennial. On March 19, 1938, accompanied by William J. Petersen of the State Historical Society, they journeyed to Madison where they conferred with W. F. Whitney, general manager of the Wisconsin Territorial Centennial. This was the first of many trips taken by the Executive officers. They traveled some 6500 miles on Centennial business. They conferred with representative citizens in Dubuque four times ; they counseled with citizens of Burlington, Ma- son City, Council Bluffis, Iowa City, and Ames, on three different occasions; they visited Sioux City, Maquoketa, and Decorah twice ; and they met once with similar groups at Anamosa, Clinton, Algona, and Toledo. Their prelimi- nary work over, Mr. Hammond and Mr. Burlingame at- tended observances at Ames, Mason City, Council Bluffs, Dubuque, and Burlington. In addition to these Mr. Ham- mond was present at the Decorah and Maquoketa celebra- tions while Mr. Burlingame was present at the Madrid Spring Festival and spoke at the Richland Homecoming and Centennial.^®

CENTENNIAL NEWSPAPER EDITIONS

Managing Director J. C. Hammond was successful m secur- ing the cooperation of many Iowa newspapers. An experi- enced newspaper man himself, Mr. Hammond diligently set to work preparing three solid pages of newspaper illustra- tions and approximately 35 colunms of historical and news material. A complete set of these mats and copy were turned over to Iowa newspaper editors at the nominal charge of five dollars. The ordinary cost of engraving the illustrations alone would have cost each newspaper over

'^^Eepori of the Managvug Director and Executive Secretary of the Iowa Centennial Committee, pp. 4, 5, 24-26.

16 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS

$125. Most of the photographs were received from the fol- lowing: E. W. Blom, assistant chief engineer of the Iowa Highway Department; Robert 0. Bickel of Cedar Rapids; Williamz Photo Shop of Spirit Lake ; the Lander Studio of Boone ; and the Photographic Division of the WPA Federal Writers’ Project. In addition to these, reproductions were made of a number of plates from the publications of the State Historical Society of Iowa. Local editors thus had the pictures and articles on Iowa history prepared for them: it was only necessary to write up their local and county history and secure proper illustrations. It is not surprising that eighty-two papers availed themselves of this service, although only about one-half of these managed to get historical editions out during the year 1938.^^

As a further aid, the Centennial Committee arranged to have journalism students at the State University of Iowa specially trained and prepared to assist newspaper editors getting out historical editions in various Iowa com- munities. William J. Petersen of the State Historical So- ciety was selected to deliver a series of lectures to the stu- dents on the Centennial, stressing the highlights and calling attention to the various sources from which the students might cull material for the historical editions. The State Historical Society further prepared brief county histories which were furnished to the Centennial Committee for dis- tribution to various papers.^^

An exact list of the newspapers issuing centennial editions

11 Eeport of the Managing Director and Executive Secretary of the Iowa Centennial Committee, pp. 6-8. The two major advertising services cooperated fully with the Iowa Centennial Committee. The Metro Company of New York and the Meyer-Both Company of Chicago both supplied subscribing news- papers with ‘^mats” to illustrate their advertising without charge. Non- subscribing papers could secure these ^‘mats” for the nominal sum of $4.50.

12 J. A. Swisher and Euth A. Gallaher compiled or edited the bulk of these county histories. It was necessary for the Society to employ additional assistance in order to complete the work.

THE TERRITOEIAL CENTENNIAL OF IOWA 17

is unavailable. The Richland Clarion contained only four pages, but had considerable historical material in it. The Decorah Journal and the Decor ah Public Opimion produced identical editions in a joint cooperative venture. The names of both papers appeared on the mast-head. The weekly Toledo Chronicle became a daily during the Tama County Homecoming and Iowa Centennial celebration. The Chronicle printed a total of twenty-six pages with a wealth of historical material in its unique three-day cen- tennial edition. The Lorimor Agricultural Fair got out a four page spread with many historical articles and pictures. Many editors doubtless planned to use the material in the near future. Down to December, 1938, the State Historical Society of Iowa had received copies of the following his- torical editions

The Albia Union-Republican , September 22, 1938 The Algona Upper Des Moines, August 16, 1938 The Anamosa Eureka, August 18, 1938 The Anamosa Journal, August 18, 1938 The Anthon Herald, August 17, 1938 The Daily Hawk-Eye Gazette (Burlington), September 2, 1938

Centerville Daily lowegian, August 23, 1938 Clarinda Her aid- Journal, October 31, 1938 The Howard County Times (Cresco), August 24, 1938 Decorah J ournal and Public Opinion, August 25, 1938 The Telegraph-Herald (Dubuque), August 14, 1938 The Eldora Herald-Ledger, August 4, 1938 The Jewell Record, August 18, 1938

13 The State Historical Society sent out letters in October to sixty-three editors from whom no historical edition had been received. Of the nineteen who replied only six had issued such editions. If the same ratio existed for the forty-four who did not reply, it is probably safe to assume that scarcely half of those listed in the Centennial Report got out historical editions.

18 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS

The Leon Journal-Reporter, July 14, 1938 Jackson Sentinel (Maquoketa), August 19, 1938 Mason City Glohe-Gazette, June 17, 1938 The Milton Herald, August 25, 1938 The Monticello Express, August 11, 1938 The Montezuma Republican, March 24, 1938 The New Hampton Tribmie, August 18, 1938 The Odebolt Chronicle, August 25, 1938 The Richland Clarion, August 4, 1938 The Lyon County Reporter (Rock Rapids), September 1, 1938

Sioux City Journal, July 17, 1938 The Sioux City Tribune, July 2, 1938 The Toledo Chronicle, August 4, 5, 6, 1938 The Daily Freeman- Journal (Webster City), September 5, 1938

The Winterset Madisonian, September 28, 1938

One of the outstanding editions was produced in Odebolt, which boasts of being the ‘^Popcorn Center of the World The editors saw fit to celebrate fifty years of the commu- nity’s progress (the paper was founded on May 27, 1887) and accordingly issued a beautifully illustrated, five-column 104-page historical edition. The issue contained contribu- tions by two native sons of Odebolt: Leo A. Borah of the National Geographic Society and Erik McKinley Erikkson of the University of Southern California.^^

PUBLICITY OF THE CENTENNIAL

In addition to the many articles appearing in the various weekly and daily newspapers The Des Moines Register featured articles and editorials on the Centennial by Harvey

14 The Odeholt Chronicle, July 28, August 25, 1938. The historical issue was mailed free to paid-in-advance subscribers and sold for twenty-five cents a copy to others.

THE TERRITORIAL CENTENNIAL OF IOWA 19

Ingham and other staff members. Feature articles were also printed in the Sunday magazine section.

Much space was given by The Cedar Rapids Gazette to Centennial celebrations in eastern Iowa, many of the articles being profusely illustrated with pictures of his- torical floats and exhibits.

A number of magazines of widespread circulation featured the Iowa Centennial. The Mid-Continent Petro- leum Company inserted a double-page spread of pictures and an article m. The Diamond, the regular publication of the company. The Dodge Motor Company allocated con- siderable space in the Dodge News to the Iowa Centennial. The Central Life Assurance Society of Des Moines featured the Centennial in the September issue of Clas, its official publicity organ. Numerous other commercial, educational, religious, and social organizations devoted much space to the Centennial through their special publications.

The Iowa Centennial received still other national pub- licity. Rotogravure pictures of the Iowa Singing Centen- nial at Ames appeared in the New York Times, the Detroit News, and the Kansas City Star. Approximately two thousand 4-H Girls appeared in one picture. The Chicago Tribune devoted nearly a page to the Iowa Territorial Cen- tennial in its Sunday issue of June 12th. Several illus- trations were used and it has been estimated that the cost of running tliis material as a paid advertisement would have been double the expenses of the Iowa Centennial Committee itself. The New York Herald-Tribune and The ChristioAi Science Monitor also carried articles on the Iowa Centennial.

THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC

One of the first things which the Executive Office sought

15 Report of the Managing Director and Executive Secretary of the Iowa Centennial Committee, pp. 6, 7.

20 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS

to do was to secure an article on Iowa in the National Geographic Magazine. Such an article in a magazine with over a million subscribers would naturally result in nation- wide publicity. The National Geographic Society agreed, after months of appeals, to feature Iowa in a future issue of the magazine. It could not, however, because of previous commitments, promise it before 1939. Leo A. Borah, an editor on the National Geographic staff, spent several weeks in Iowa, during the spring of 1938. Secretary of State Robert E. O’Brian arranged transportation all over Iowa while John D. Adams, General Secretary of the Des Moines Chaniber of Commerce, and Alex Fitzhugh, execu- tive director of the Greater Des Moines Committee, devoted much of their time to Mr. Borah. In August the Geo- graphic Society sent out Joseph B. Roberts, a staff photog- rapher, who spent two months touring the State in search of pictures. Roberts traveled over six thousand miles and took over eight hundred pictures, many of them in colors. In October he returned to Washington where he imme- diately set to work developing and writing legends for his pictures. When this work was completed he submitted 142 black and white pictures and 121 colored ones to the National Geographic editors. Of these some sixty will be used. The pictures and the article, according to Mr. Borah, will entail an expenditure of approximately $100,000 by the National Geographic Society. The Iowa number will appear sometime in 1939.^®

IOWA HISTOEY WEEK

The Centennial of the Territory of Iowa formed the central theme for Iowa History Week in 1938, the thir- ds The Des Moines Register, April 24, 1938 ; Iowa City Press-Citisen, October 10, 1938; letter from Eobert Burlingame to William J. Petersen, dated April 23, 1938; letter from Joseph B. Eoberts to William J. Petersen, dated Novem- ber 29, 1938.

THE TERRITOEIAL CENTENNIAL OF IOWA 21

teenth of a series sponsored jointly by the State Historical Society of Iowa and the Iowa Federation of Women ^s Clubs. The purpose of devoting a week each year to Iowa history is to stimulate a greater interest in the story of the Commonwealth. In previous years the State Historical Society of Iowa has devoted at least one complete issue of The Palimpsest to the subject chosen for the theme of Iowa History Week. In 1938, all twelve issues of The Palimpsest were devoted to the history of Iowa in 1838. This pro- vided a wealth of material, not only for schools and study clubs during Iowa History Week but also for their study of Iowa history throughout the year. Transportation and communication, agriculture and industry, the social, reli- gious, and educational life of the people, all were treated in detail as the staff of the State Historical Society gleaned the story from the newspapers published a century ago. Biographies of notable pioneers, stories of fights for county seats, accounts of the vicissitudes and rewards of jour- nalism, appeared from time to time. Tales of the medical, legal, and dental professions were interspersed with accounts of formal celebrations and homespun amusements. In addition to schools and study clubs, these stories were of great value to the Centennial Committee as a guide in furnishing material and cuts to newspapers for their historical editions.^'^

THE CENTENNIAL POSTAGE STAMP

Undoubtedly one of the most noteworthy achievements of the Centennial Committee was its success in securing the issue of an Iowa Centennial postage stamp by the

17 See the April, 1938, issue of the Editor *s Sheet, the monthly newspaper release of The State Historical Society of Iowa. Copies of this news bulletin are sent free to over four hundred Iowa newspapers. During 1938 the Editor Sheet featured the Iowa Territorial Centennial, thereby contributing twelve solid columns of historical data to Iowa newspapers.

22 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS

Federal government. The possibilities of such a stamp had been discussed in 1937 but sentiment for it did not crystallize until 1938. On January 7, 1938, George E. Virden wrote the Post Office Department requesting that a Territorial Centennial stamp be issued. When the Centennial Com- mittee opened its Executive Office on February 1, 1938, steps were at once taken to secure the issuance of an Iowa stamp. An Iowa commemorative stamp would mark not only the first stamp ever issued for the Hawkeye State but it would also be the first stamp ever issued in honor of the centennial anniversary of a Territory.

The first efforts on the part of lowans met with an em- phatic refusal; on February 11, 1938, Roy M. North, acting Third Assistant Postmaster General notified the Com- mittee that Territorial stamps were never issued. A month later, on March 11th, Ramsey S. Black, Third As- sistant Postmaster General, again rejected the plea of Iowa for a Centennial stamp.

Undaunted by these rebuffs the Centennial Committee enlisted the support of Senator Clyde L. Herring and Con- gressman Fred Biermann, both of whom vigorously pushed the plan in Washington. On May 9, 1938, President Roose- velt expressed sympathy with Iowa’s desire but regretted he could not overrule the decision of the Post Office De- partment. As an alternative President Roosevelt sug- gested that the Committee ‘‘avail itself of the right to go to the director of the mint and have a special medal coined.” Since this would have to be sold in order to pay expenses the Executive Committee objected, not only be- cause it had no funds but also because it disliked the com- mercial promotion needed for such a campaign. Refusing to accept the presidential veto. Senator Herring shortly rallied the entire Iowa delegation to his support. The Iowa delegation insisted that the stamp be issued