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a$tmx §>atirt£ of Natural jjftstorg.


1874-18 <Y &■





T. T. Bouve. Samuel L. Abbot.

Thomas M. Brewer. A. S. Packard, Jr.

Edw. Burgess.





Prof. A. Hyatt. Custodian's Eeport 1

E. Pickering. Treasurer's Eeport 12

Officers of the Society, List of 13

Jeffries Wyman, M.D. Cannibalism of the Florida Indians .... 14

A. Hyatt. Genetic Relations of the Angulatidae 15

J. A. Allen. Notes on the Natural History of portions of Dakota and

Montana 33

S. H. Scudder. Report on Butterflies from Dakota and Montana ... 86

J. G. Hunt, M.D. Contents of Mastodon's Stomach 91

S. W. Garman. New Species of North American Serpent 92

Prof. A. Hyatt. Note on Aptenodytes patagonica Forst 94

T. T. Bouve. Remarks in relation to the death of the late President of

the Society, Prof. Jeffries Wyman 95

Asa Gray, M.D. Memorial of the late Prof. Jeffries Wyman .... 96

F. W. Putnam. Resolutions respecting the death of Prof. Wyman . . . 125 Prof. W. B. Rogers. Letter relating to the late Prof. Wyman .... 125

C. Stodder. Note on the Locality of Bermuda Tripoli 126

C. Johnston, M.D. On the Locality of the Bermuda Tripoli .... 127

H. K. Morrison. New Noctuidse 131

Dr. J. D. Dana. Metamorphism and Pseudomorphism 167

S. W. Garman. Skates of the Eastern Coast of United States .... 170

S. L. Burbank. Minerals from Athol, Mass 181

C. Stodder. Examination of Mud from Oyster Beds, Charleston, S. C. . 182

C. Whittlesey. Coal Seam No. 6, Ohio Geology 183

Prof. R. H. Richards. Newly discovered Lead Vein, Newburyport, Mass. 200

Prof. A. Hyatt. Hollow-fibred Horny Sponges 204

T. M. Brewer, M.D. Relations of Ardea rufa and A. Pealii .... 205

S. H. Scudder. Remarks on the Old Genus Callidryas 206

H. K. Morrison. Texan Noctuidse 209

F. W. Putnam. Mammoth Cave Fishes 221

Prof. A. Hyatt. Two New Genera of Ammonites 225

Prof. A. Hyatt. Biological Relations of Jurassic Ammonites .... 236 Richard Rathbun. Cretaceous Lamellibranchs from near Pernambuco,

Brazil 241


S. H. Scudder. Orthoptera from Northern Peru 257

P. R. Uhler. List of Hemiptera and Neuroptera collected by Prof. Or-

ton in Northern Peru 282

Chas. V. Riley. Description of a new Agrotis 286

Prof. N. S. Shaler. Notes on some of the Phenomena of Elevation and

Subsidence of the Continents 288

J. A. Allen. Remarks on the Sharp-tailed Finch (Ammodromus caudacutus). 292

S. H. Scudder. Description of some Labradorian Butterflies .... 294

F. W. Putnam. Archasological researches in Kentucky 314

Pi'of. N. S. Shaler. Considerations of the possibilities of a Warm Clim- ate within the Arctic Circle 332

E. W. Nelson. Notes on the Ornithology of Utah, Nevada and California. 338

Prof. A. Hyatt. Jurassic and Cretaceous Ammonites from South America 365 P. S. Sprague and E. P. Austin. The Species of Coleoptera described

by T. W. Randall 373

R. Bliss, Jr. Remarks on the Fin-spines of the Siluroids and Doradoids 386 H. A. Hagen, M. D. History of the Development of Museums of Natural

History 387

W. W. Dodge. Notes on the Geology of Eastern Massachusetts . . . 388 Committee. Memorial to the Legislature relating to the proposed Resur-

vey of the State 419

J. Sullivant. Letter concerning the discovery of Bermuda Tripoli . . 422

Miss Ellen H. Swallow. Analysis of Samarskite 424

Miss Ellen H. Swallow. Occurrence of Boracic Acid in Mineral Water 428

J. A. Allen. Synopsis of American Leporidse 430

T. M. Brewer, M.D. List of the Birds of New England 436

S. H. Scudder. A Century of Orthoptera.

Decade II 454

Decade III . 472

Decade IV 510

Miss Ellen H. Swallow. Chemical Composition of some Mineral Spe- cies accompanying the Lead Ore of Newburyport 462

Prof. N. S. Shaler. Notes on some points connected with Tidal Erosion 465

S. H. Scudder. On Spharagemon, a Genus of (Edipodidas 467

S. H. Scudder. Revision of two American Genera of (Edipodidge . . 478

Dr. T. Sterry Hunt. On the Boston Artesian Well and its Waters . . 486 Prof. N. S. Shaler. Geological Relations of Boston and Narragansett

T. Thorell. Spiders from Labrador 490

J. H. Emerton. Structure of the Palpus of male Spiders 505

Prof. W. H. Niles. Physical Features of Massachusetts 507

Dr. T. Sterry Hunt. Remarks on Prof. Niles' Communication . . . 508




Annual Meeting. May 6, 1874.

Vice-President R. C. Greenleaf, Esq., in the chair. Forty- nine persons present.

Prof. Hyatt, Custodian, presented the following Report on the condition and operations of the Society for the year.

The most important, as well as the saddest event of the past year, was the decease of Prof. Agassiz.

The great influence which he had exerted, and the deep feelings which he had aroused by his life, were apparent in the respect and sorrow manifested by the entire community.

The unusual tribute of a Memorial Meeting was accorded to him by the Society, the proceedings being appropriately conducted by those among our members who had been inti-


Annual Report.] 2 [May 6,

mate with him in the early days immediately after his arrival in this country.

When Prof. Agassiz came to New England he found a small but enthusiastic body of men, mostly members of this Society, who were devoted to the study of Natural History. These gentlemen were striving to awaken the minds of the community to the importance of the study of the Sciences, not only as the best means for developing the natural re- sources of the country, but for the attainment of a more advanced stage of culture than had yet been reached. This building, with its Library and Museum, and the present prosperous condition and importance of the Society, are witnessess of the untiring energy and success of their efforts.

The first work of these pioneers in the study of Natural History was to reduce to rule and order the fauna and flora of this comparatively unexplored territory. How success- fully this was undertaken, and how completely it was carried out, may be judged by the works of Binney and Gould, Storer, Emerson, Harris, Hitchcock and others whose names adorn the Annals of this Society and the Survey of the State. Prof. Agassiz had, however, learned by actual experience, that the exploration of a new fauna, when carried beyond the strict limit of the discovery and description of the more obvious forms, was liable to lead to the pernicious habit of species hunting. He had Avitnessed the last days of the wild scramble for new species, which had followed upon the in- troduction of the Linnean nomenclature in Europe, and its injurious effects upon the minds of his fellow students. He had also taken part in the reaction inaugurated by Oken, Goethe and Yon Baer, in Germany, and Geoffrey St. Hilaire, Lamarck and Cuvier in France, and felt that in this country the same battle must be fought over again. With the strength and enthusiasm, which we know so well, he endeav- ored to open the eyes of naturalists to the impending danger, and tried by all the means in his power to turn the tide of

1874.] 3 [Annual Report.

future researches in a more fruitful direction. How much we owe to his labors in this field may be judged by the almost universal tendency of our naturalists toward embryological and anatomical studies. We have* seen this in the pro- duction of such works as Prof. H. J. Clark's "Spongiaa Cili- atae," Mr. J. A. Allen's " Laws of Geographical Distribution among Birds," Dr. A. S. Packard's " Embryology of Limulus" and " Guide to the Study of Insects," Prof. E. S. Morse's "Embryology of Brachiopods," and Alexander Agassiz's " Researches upon Echinoderms."

How widely his labors have extended, and how deeply they have affected the whole country in this respect cannot be estimated ; it would take up the entire space allotted to this Report, if presented in detail. It suffices to say, how- ever, that his students, bearing with them more or less of his desire for the philosophical study of Natural History, have spread over the whole country. They have founded Muse- ums in Chicago, Rochester, New York and Salem, and have established a Natural History periodical, " The American Naturalist," and a State Survey, that of Kentucky, to which I hope we may soon be able to add Massachusetts.

The constant efforts which Prof. Agassiz put forth in order to place the pursuit of Natural History in a favorable light before the people, entitle him to the heartfelt thanks of all lovers of that branch of science. The almost universal deri- sion with which the pursuit of Natural History was viewed in former times, has been changed to respect, principally through his efforts. His great social influence and persua- sive eloquence was constantly employed in this work. He consistently taught his students that the future progress of science in this country must largely depend upon the good will of the people ; and he created by his own efforts that popular respect for Natural History which we now find throughout the whole country.

Even with such a brief statement of facts it is possible to see that Prof. Agassiz's biographer can claim for him the

Annual Report.] 4 lMay6,

honor of having been the author of two revolutions, one sci- entific and one popular one in the mode of studying Zoology, and one in habits of thought of the people at large. Doubtless these remarks will seem sadly deficient to those who would naturally expect a more extended notice of his social and scientific character. This has, however, received attention from the President, Mr. Geo. B. Emerson and Rev. R. C. Waterston, and I should only repeat what these gentle- men have already so well expressed, and will therefore turn to the usual record of the year's work.

My visit to Europe in pursuit of my own studies afforded an opportunity to fill out the Palaeontological collection. A fair representation of the strata of Western Europe was needed in order that we should be able to compare the con- tained fossils in a general way with their synchronous rep- resentatives in North America. This met with the earnest approval of Mr. John Cummings, who generously furnished the necessary credit, and has given the collection to the Society.

By a lucky accident I was enabled to secure the collection of Oberfinanzrath Eser of Stuttgart, the printed catalogue of which lies upon the table.

This, next to the collection of Count Mandelsloh, was con- sidered the best in Wurtemburg, with respect to the fossils of the tertiary and secondary periods, including also the tri- assic formations. It also possessed a fair representation of the fossils of the Carboniferous, and a small collection of Devonian and Silurian types. All of these fossils had been selected with great care, and Herr Eser had expended the leisure hours of nearly forty years of his life in accumulating them, during which time he made frequent and prolonged excursions to the most celebrated localities. He was in cor- respondence with the most eminent German Palaeontologists, and the collections contain many originals and types de- scribed by such men as Hermann von Mayer, Oppel, Escher

1874.] O [Annual Report.

von der Linth, Heer and others. Besides suites of specimens with localities and names vouched for by these great author- ities, the bulk of the collection possesses no little value de- rived from the careful determinations of Herr Eser himself, generally with the assistance of the authorities living near him, Prof. Quenstedt, Fraas and others.

The uniques which it contains, as might be anticipated from what I have said, are both remarkable and numerous. The locality of Unter and Oberer Kirchberg, which was first opened by Herr Eser, afforded many of these, named by Von Mayer and Heer. A collection from the eocene and creta- ceous beds of Appenzell, Switzerland, is very fine. The Portland stone from the neighborhood of Ulm, contains many unique specimens described by Oppel, all the fossils found during the building of the extensive fortifications hav- ing been sent by the chief architect to Herr Eser. The most valuable single series in the collection consists of the two head pieces and detached bones of Belodon Camp- belli, described and figured by Von Mayer, the only remains of this remarkable animal ever found. I would also call attention to the specimens of tertiary plants, which are of such delicacy that they are mounted like botanical specimens on paper. Herr Eser assured me that it took him six months to clean and mount them, and they have been identified by Heer, the great fossil botanist.

This purchase left me at liberty to enter into negotiations for a collection of fossils to fill out the Silurian portion, which was poorly represented in Herr Eser's collection, and this I hope may still be sent to us. It was also essential that some larger specimens should be added to the collection, and this the generosity of Mr. Cummings enabled me also to ac- complish by the purchase of several Icthyosauri and Teleo- sauri, and a magnificent plate of the expanded crown of Pentacrinus Briareus. Besides these collections, the PalaBon- tological Department has also been richly increased by the acquisition of the splendid suite of Devonian fossils collected

Annual Eeport.] 6 [May 6,

near Ithaca, K Y., by the late Prof. Win. C. Cleveland, one of the most accomplished observers it has been my good fortune to know. These fossils unfortunately were still un- named, but this has been in a great measure remedied by the kindness of Mr. Richard Rathbun, who has named for us a large proportion of them, and about all our Chemung speci- mens from other localities. The Society owes this collection partly to the donations of Mr. Bouve and Mr. Cummings, and partly to purchase.

A considerable proportion of the year has been taken up with the alterations now going on in the building. By these alterations it is proposed to obtain the desirable results of arranging the collections according to their natural order. A visitor when entering the building, will be directed by a guide-book to find the different departments. Usually speci- mens are put in, like the plastering, to suit the inside of the building, and their natural affinities sacrificed more or less to every corner or inconvenient angle. We shall, undoubtedly, experience some difficulty in the arrangement of details in the separate collections, but we can rest assured that the nat- ural sequence of forms, whether Mineralogical, Geological, or Zoological, will be as fully and better illustrated than it ever has been in any printed work embracing similar grounds, an achievement heretofore considered unattainable in Muse- ums of the size of ours. I by no means desire to assume for myself the whole credit of this really extraordinary success ; the peculiar construction of this building alone made it pos- sible to adopt such a plan of arrangement, and reflects great credit upon the judgment and capacity of the gentlemen who superintended its erection. The President not only urged the adoption of the Plan of Organization which was announced in the Report of 1870-1871, but has ever since given it his most energetic support, and to his efforts the Society owes the great progress made at the present time.

The expense of these alterations necessarily came upon us all at one time, but it must be remembered that they will

1874.] 7 [Annual Report.

save the Society the expense of ultimately erecting a new building. The erection of an addition, which was contem- plated, would necessarily involve not only a great outlay of capital in bricks and mortar, but a corresponding annual increase in our expenses for heating, lighting, and wages to employees, besides the accumulation of larger and costlier collections. These expenses would have at once disabled all attempts to render the Museum really useful and instruc- tive to the public, and have obliged the officers and working members to give their whole time simply to the preservation of the constantly increasing collections.

The cooperation with the Institute of Technology, besides the usual use of specimens, has extended during this year to the delivery of a course of lectures by Prof. W. H. Niles, in this hall. The duplicate fossils have been worked over by Mr. Crosby, and prepared for use as a study collection, to be placed in the southwest room in the basement, which has been floored, and will be fitted partly with the cases of the Rogers collection, and partly with duplicate cases from our own building. The collections of Prof. Wm. B. Rogers and Henry D. Rogers, now in the Institute of Technology, will be placed in this room until such a time as they can be worked up, and a complete suite selected for deposit in the show-cases. Fortunately Prof. Rogers will be able to give us his assistance in this work, and we hope to be able with his aid to restore the labels which have been lost or dam- aged. Mr. Crosby has prepared numerous microscopical sections and preparations of sponges, and the work in this department is progressing favorably.

The unfortunate illness of Mr. Sprague has interrupted the progress of the work in the Entomological department, though he was at work for a month at the commencement of the year, and has frequently inspected the collections since, as has also Mr. Emerton, who reports them free of insects.

Work upon the Mollusca, though interrupted, is now being continued by Dr. Carpenter. He, with his assistant,

Annual Report.] 8 [May 6,

visited Boston last summer, and, aided by Mr. Emerton, packed and unpacked specimens, arranging and cataloguing a large number of them. During the winter Dr. Carpenter has worked up ninety sets of duplicate bivalves and large shells, his assistant being now engaged upon the last tray. The whole of the land shells and fresh water univalves are yet to be arranged.

Dr. Thomas Dwight, chairman of the Committee on Com- parative Anatomy, reports that the cases have been improved by the introduction of glass partitions, and the locks changed, but that considerable alteration in the cases is still necessary.

A prepared skeleton of a horse mackerel has been added to the collection, and some valuable exchanges have been negotiated.

"Work upon the fishes has been begun by Mr. Putnam, Chairman of the Ichthyological Committee, and he is now engaged in arranging and classifying the Lake Erie collec- tion.

The Reptiles remain in the same condition as in former years.

The Ornithological collection has been frequently in- spected during the year by Mr. Emerton, and is entirely free from insects. The collection of Mammalia is represented by a few wretched looking skins, and it would be better for the reputation of the Society to close the room in which they are, if they cannot be added to or improved.

Considerable work has been done in the Botanical Depart- ment by Miss Carter, a young lady employed by Mr. Cum- mings to inspect and arrange the duplicates. Mr. Brigham, chairman of the Botanical Committee, has removed the col- lections in great part to the new work room designed for this department, and reports that they are all in excellent condi- tion.

Work has also been done upon the Mineral ogical collec- tions by Mr. Bouve, chairman of the Mineralogical Commit-

1874.] 9 [Annual Eeport.

tee, in preparing them for removal and display in the new cases now making.

The Geological collections have been removed and stored in trays preparatory to a similar removal by the chairman of the Geological Committee.

I am happy in being able to state that work has been be- gun by a competent Microscopist, Dr. Henry Coleman, upon the revision and arrangement of our valuable Microscopical collection, and that there is some hope of his being able to continue his efforts until the collection is put in a safe and accessible condition.

During the last year five Corresponding and thirty-one Resident Members have been elected. Seventeen general meetings of the Society, eight of the Section of Entomology and seven of the Section of Microscopy have been held.

The plan of notifying each member by a postal card, of the general meetings, and of the papers to be read at each, was adopted during the autumn, and has been attended with great success, as has been shown by the greatly increased interest and fuller attendance at the meetings. The latter has averaged, since October 15, sixty-four ; whereas the aver- age during the last year was twenty-five. The greatest num- ber of persons present at any one meeting was one hundred and twenty-four, the largest Society meeting ever held in this hall.

From various unavoidable causes, only one course of Lowell lectures has been given during the past season, a course of four in number by Dr. Thomas D wight, Jr., on liv- ing animal tissues.

The disastrous effects of the great fire, together with other difficulties, prevented the continuance of the lectures to teachers, which had been so generously maintained by Mr. Cummings, but it is hoped that these may be resumed at no distant time.

Annual Report.]


[May 6,


The Society has published since last May four Articles in the Memoirs : on the Fossil Myriapods from Nova Scotia, by Mr. S. H. Scudder ; on Earthquakes in New England, by M. Albert Lancaster ; on Embryology^of Terebratulina, by Prof. E. S. Morse, and a list of the Birds of Western Mexico, by Mr. Geo. N. Lawrence.

Of the Proceedings two parts, concluding the fifteenth volume, and two parts of the sixteenth have been issued.


In the two last Annual Reports the need of the addition of a gallery to the back library has been urged ; this want was supplied last June, and the Library is now arranged so as to preclude the necessity of extended changes for many years, although it is probable that a necessity for more shelf room will arise before the close of the present decade. The work of correcting the alcove catalogues has been accomplished ; that on the card catalogue is still in progress.

The additions during the year number 1353, and may be classified as follows :

Volumes . . . Parts . . . . Pamphlets . . Maps and Charts




246 .

. . . 75 . .

. . 2 . . '.

652 .

... 177 . .

. . 4 . . .

124 .

. . . 24 . .

Total . . . .







Two additions of great value deserve especial mention, viz. : two collections of original paintings of Georgian Insects, by John Abbot. One of these collections, painted for Dr. Oemler of South Carolina, consists of nearly two hundred plates, illustrating Lepidoptera in different stages, and was purchased for the Society by the liberality of several mem- bers. The second collection, the gift of Dr. Asa Gray, is of

1874.] 11 [Annual Report.

about the same size, and represents, in the main, species different from those illustrated in the first collection, while both contain but very few of the insects figured in the great work of Smith and Abbot on the Lepidopterous Insects of Georgia.

Seventy-one volumes have been bound during the year; as usual, however, the amount of this work remaining to be done has increased.

We have received exchanges for the first time from seven Societies, viz. :

Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde Berlin.

Botanisch Verein der Provinz Brandenburg "

Physikalisch-medicinische Societat Erlangen.

Sociedad Mexicana de Geografia y Estadistica . . . . Mexico.

Society d' Emulation du Departement de l'Allier . . . Moulins.

Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Natur und Volkerkunde Ostasiens . Yokohama.

Imperial Botanical Garden St. Petersburg.

For extensive series of earlier publications, we have to thank especially the

Academia real das Sciencias Lisbon.

Literary and Philosophical Society Liverpool.

Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps Akademien .... Stockholm.

During the year six hundred and seventy-four books have been taken from the Library by eighty-nine persons.

Annual Report.] 12

The Treasurer presented the following report.


Report of E. Pickering, Treasurer, on the Financial Affairs of the Society, for the year ending April 30th, 1874.


Dividends and Interest


Courtis Fund Income


Pratt Fund Income.


ii. F. Wolcott Fund income


Walker Fund Income


" Prize Fund Income . ...


" Grand Prize Fund Income ....

* 94.00

" " " " Sale of Stock .


Entomological Fund Income

Bulfinch Street Estate Fund Income ....



Admission Fees


Annual Assessments . . .


Lowell Institute Subsidy for Lectiirei ....







Museum and Furniture


Repairs of Museum




Cleveland Collection of Fossils ....




Abbot's Drawings of Lepidoptera


Memoirs and Publications .... $1,696.28

Less receipts 562.87












A. S. Packard, Jr., Walker Prize


A. Agassiz, Walker Grand Prize


General Expenses



Excess of Expenditures over Receipts


Boston, May lt 187 1^.

E. Pickering, Treasurer, Boston Society of Natural History.

The Society then proceeded to the election of officers for the ensuing year.

Messrs. Mann and Brewer were requested to collect and count the ballots, and they announced that forty-four ballots had been cast, all for the nominees of the Nominating Com- mittee reported at the previous meeting. The following gentlemen were therefore declared officers for 1874-75.


















Minerals. Radiates, Crustaceans and Worms.

Thomas T. Bouve, A. S. Packard, Jr., M.D.,

L. S. Burbank, A. E. Verrill,

R. H. Richards. Alex. E. Agassiz.

Geology. Wm. H. Niles, T. Sterry Hunt, L. S. Burbank.

Mollusks. Edward S. Morse, J. Henry Blake, Levi L. Thaxter.

PalcRontology . Thos. T. Bouve, N. S. Shaleb, W. H. Niles.

Insects. S. H. Scudder, Edward Burgess, A. S. Packard, Jr., M.D.

Botany. John Cummings, Charles J. Sprague, J. Amory Lowell.

Fishes and Reptiles. F. W. Putnam, S. Kneeland, M.D., Richard Bliss, Jr.

Microscopy. Edwin Bicknell, E. C. Greenleaf, B. Joy Jeffries, M.D.

Birds. Thomas M. Brewer, M.D. Samuel Cabot, M.D., J. A. Allen.

Comparative Anatomy. Thomas Dwight, Jr., M.D., Jeffries Wyman, M.D., J. C White, M.D.

Mammals. J. A. Allen, J. H. Emerton, J. B. S. Jackson, M.D.

Wyman.] 14 [May 20,

The thanks of the Society were unanimously voted to the retiring Vice-President, Mr. Greenleaf, who had declined re- election.

The following Resolution, offered by Mr. G. Washington Warren, was unanimously adopted:

" That this Society desires to place upon its records its high appre- ciation of the eminent services rendered by Dr. Charles T. Jackson, one of its Vice-Presidents, and of the high honor conferred upon the Society by his long association with it ; and it would respectfully tender to his afflicted family its sincere condolence for the malady which has overtaken him, and has so abruptly terminated for a season only it is greatly to be hoped his scientific researches which have been of inestimable value to the public."

May 20, 1874.

The President in the Chair. Sixty persons present.

Prof. Jeffries Wyman read an account of the discovery of human remains in the fresh water shell-heaps of Florida, un- der circumstances which indicate that cannibalism was prac- ticed by the early inhabitants living on the shores of the St. Johns River.

These remains were found scattered among the shells, and were broken up in the same manner as the bones of edible animals. In several instances considerable portions of the skeleton of a single individual were found, but spread out over a large surface and in a disorderly manner, showing that the bones could not have been de- posited as in an ordinary burial. As there were no marks of teeth these bones could not be supposed to have been broken up, while lying on the surface, by wild animals, as bears and wolves, and subsequently covered over by the accumulation of rubbish. They were, besides, in the different instances broken up in a somewhat similar manner, the upper arm and thigh bones being fractured just below the heads and in the middle. The bones of the fore arm and leg were gener-

1874.] , 15 [Hyatt.

ally broken through the middle, and the ribs were broken into smaller pieces of nearly uniform length.

Prof. Wyman also gave an account of cannibalism as it existed in the two Americas at the time of the discovery of the country, as well as in later years, and gave the documentary evidence for his state- ments, the most complete and conclusive of which is derived from the relations of the Jesuits.

Mr. F. W. Putnam observed that in a few cases portions of human skeletons had been found in New England shell- heaps, and asked if Prof. Wyman believed that these were evidences of cannibalism in New England as well as Florida.

Prof. Wyman thought there was no sufficient evidence for such a belief, and he also stated that he had never known a case of burial in a shell-heap ; but at Doctor's Island, Fla., he had found a portion of a skeleton apparently buried under a heap, as Mr. Putnam stated was the case with the skeleton found under the heap near Forest River at Marblehead.

The following paper was read:

Genetic Relations of the Angulatid^e. By A. Hyatt.

According to Oppel, all three of the lower species of this group, and perhaps four, are identical. I have not, however, been able to satisfy myself that even Amm. Moreanus of D'Orbigny is not a sep- arate species. The characteristics in which the forms differ from each other are precisely similar to those which distinguish JEgoceras Boucaultianum from its nearest ally, and this is considered worthy of a distinct name by Oppel.

Another difficulty in the way of joining all these species under one name is that they form a group precisely equivalent to the Discocera- tidas, or to the whole of the Falcifiri, so far as their involution and the general parallelism of their characteristics is concerned. They are simply a very highly accelerated series, in which there are as great differences between the extreme forms, as there is between the extreme forms of the Discoceratidse or of many other groups, com- posed of more numerous forms with less abrupt modifications.

According to D'Orbigny his Amm. catenatus, of which we have a specimen from the neighborhood of Semur, occurs locally below



[May 20,




.aSgoc. Charmassei, thin variety

JSgoc. Charmasaei, stout variety

Mgoc. angulation

Planokbisbed. JEgoc. catenatum

Trias. iEgoceras incultum

iEgoceras Boucaultianum

-ffigcc. Leigneletii


1874.] 17 [Hyatt.

JEgoceras Charmassei and Leigneletii, and according to Oppel, all these forms are in the "Angulatusbett," succeeded in the " Tubercu- latusbett," by JEgoceras Boucaultianum. If there is really any such regularity of succession, and from the collection at Semur it Vould seem to be even more regular than Oppel supposed, it would accord admirably with what has been observed in other groups.

Not only does the involution greatly increase in each succeeding species, but the septa become more complicated in outline, and the adult characteristics of the pilse 1 and form are repeated at earlier and earlier stages in each species. This may be seen by the following descriptions. The same law governs also the inheritance of the old age characteristics of the individual. Thus Boucaultianus has the old age characteristics sooner developed in its growth than any other form, and occurs latest in time, thus showing that the acceleration, or quicker reproduction of the characteristics, extends to the whole life, affecting even the period at which old age begins. The size increases in each successive form to Leigneletii, and then decreases considerably in Boucaultianus.

One specimen from Semur is labelled Ammonites Boucaultianus but evidently belongs to Leigneletii. This shows that in extreme old ao-e the abdomen becomes perfectly sharp and smooth; the pilse are obsolescing, not reaching quite to the edge of the abdomen.

In Prof. Fraas' collection, associated with P. planorbis in the Planorbisbed, is a specimen of JEgoceras angulatum var. catenatum and as- this is the first appearance of JEgoceras angulatum, it is in- teresting to notice that it is less involute, more discoidal, and the whorl is more involute in aspect, or more like P. planorbis in its proportions than the members of the same group, which follow in the Angulatusbed.

It seems to me, therefore, that both by its geological position and characteristics it deserves to retain the separate appellation of JEgo- ceras catenatum. The developmental histories of both catenatus and angulatus, seem at first sight to contradict the supposition that they can be traced to P. planorbis, since the resemblances of the adults disappear and the differences become more and more prominent as the shells are traced backward to their younger stages of growth.

In the collection at Semur there are three specimens in the Planor- bisbed under the name of catenatus. They are not large, but one exhibits obsolescing ribs and a smooth abdomen at the diameter of 1 Pilas is used as synonymous with ribs.


Hyatt.] 18 [May 20,

52 mm. D'Orbigny's types agree with this identification. One specimen from the lower part of the same zone with Liassicus is named moreanus, and may be said to agree with D'Orbigny's figure.1 This is simply a variety identical with colubratus Zeit., growing to a larger size than catenatus.

At the diameter of 168 mm. in this specimen, the pilae crossed the abdomen, showing that old age had set in. That this is sometimes an embryonic feature retained throughout life is shown by another speci- men, which at the diameter of 21 mm. has the ribs continued over the abdomen. The typical angulatus form occurs as in Germany, in the true Angulatusbed, above the catenatus and moreanus varieties. The stout form of Charmassei occurs at Semur in the same bed, but the more compressed and more involute form which passes into Leig- neletii occurs in the Scipionianus zone, and also in the BucHandi zone. In the latter it is associated with a very thin form which seems to be a transition to Boucaultianus, and is identical with Char- massei D'Orbigny figured in PI. 92, figs. 1, 2. One of these, 375 mm. in diameter, had the pilae quite prominent on the abdomen.

The true Boucaultianus occurs above the Bucklandibed, associated with Birchii.

Amm. subangularis Oppel, in the Munich Museum, from Kaltenthal, has young like planorbis, but the pilae in one specimen cross the abdo- men. Another from Filder has smooth abdomen until it is an inch in diameter, then the pilae cross the abdomen. One from Hammerk- har seems to pass through this stage, and finally becomes channelled, as in angulatus. In old age the abdomen continues smooth, and the shell resembles the old stage of Caloceras Johnstonl This is hardly an intermediate form, and does not confirm the evidence brought for- ward by Prof. Quenstedt, which is founded upon the occurrence of similar abnormal forms, though the conclusions of that sagacious author are in the main correct. It seems to me, indeed, to be merely a reversionary form of planorbis or Johnstoni.

Waagen's name iEgoceras is retained for this group on account of the resemblance of the extreme young of angulatus to the figure which he gives of the type of his genus, jEgoceras Buonarotti of the Muschelchalk. He and Mojsisovics concur in describing the extreme young of Amm. incultum as similar to planorbis. If this is really so, and Palrrmi and planorbis, etc., are as nearly related as they appear to be by

* The original in the Jardin des Plantesiis a fragment. It is like the figure, hut shows that the interior whorls have been almost wholly restored.

1874.] 19 [Hyatt.

descriptions and figures, we have the means of tracing both iEgoceras and Psiloceras to a common stock. Therefore Quenstedt after all is in the main correct, though the point of separation for the two stocks, one the parent of the Arietidae, and the other of the Augula- tidse, must be sought in the Trias and not in the Lias. The resem- blances between the form and characteristics of the full-grown Amm. incultum and the young of jEgoceras angulatum during the stage in which the pilae stretch across the abdomen, and the channel is still undeveloped, are numerous and convincing in this respect.

.ffigoceras angulatum Waagen.

Amm. angulatus Sch., Die Petref., p. 70.

Amm. catenatus Sow., De la Beche Traite de Geol., p. 407, f. 67. " " D'Orb., Ter. Jurass., Cepb., pi. 94.

Amm. coluhratus 7i\&t., tab. 3, fig. 1.

Amm. angulatus depressus Quen., Die Ceph., p. 75, pi. 4, fig. 2.

Notwithstanding Oppel's reunion of this species with Charmassei and Leigneletii of D'Orbigny, I cannot regard them as anything more than closely allied species, since they differ in the young, as well as in the adult and old age. The young appear to be smooth for about one and a half whorls, then lateral tubercles appear. These spread upon the sides into folds, which on the early part of the fourth, or last of the third whorl, rapidly become true depressed pilae, and then begin to be continued across the abdomen with a very decided forward bend in the geniculae, and an acute angle on the abdomen. The furrowing or lineal depression which obliterates the angle of intersection of the pilae on the abdomen, is developed on the last half of the fourth whorl.

On the early part of the fourth whorl the shell has already the abdominal lobe somewhat deeper than the superior laterals, and these again very much deeper than the inferior laterals. The cells broad and rather shallow, the superior laterals being a trifle shallower than the inferior laterals, as in the Arietidae.

On the first quarter of the fifth volution the bases of the superior and inferior lateral cells and the tops of the superior lateral lobes, have become trifid, or unequally divided, whilst those of the inferior lateral lobes and auxiliary cells are equally divided. The abdominal lobes